Section 1: Networks, Signals and Systems Circuit analysis:
Node and mesh analysis, superposition, Thevenin's theorem, Norton’s theorem, reciprocity. Sinusoidal steady state analysis: phasors, complex power, maximum power transfer. Time and frequency domain analysis of linear circuits: RL, RC and RLC circuits, solution of network equations using Laplace transform. Linear 2-port network parameters, wye-delta transformation. Continuous-time signals: Fourier series and Fourier transform, sampling theorem and applications Discrete-time signals: DTFT, DFT, z-transform, discrete-time processing of continuous-time signals. LTI systems: definition and properties, causality, stability, impulse response, convolution, poles and zeroes, frequency response, group delay, phase delay.
Section 2: Electronic Devices
Energy bands in intrinsic and extrinsic semiconductors, equilibrium carrier concentration, direct and indirect band-gap semiconductors. Carrier transport: diffusion current, drift current, mobility and resistivity, generation and recombination of carriers, Poisson and continuity equations. P-N junction, Zener diode, BJT, MOS capacitor, MOSFET, LED, photo diode and solar cell.
Section 3: Analog Circuits
Diode circuits: clipping, clamping and rectifiers. BJT and MOSFET amplifiers: biasing, ac coupling, small signal analysis, frequency response. Current mirrors and differential amplifiers. Op-amp circuits: Amplifiers, summers, differentiators, integrators, active filters, Schmitt triggers and oscillators.
Section 4: Digital Circuits
Number representations: binary, integer and floating-point- numbers. Combinatorial circuits: Boolean algebra, minimization of functions using Boolean identities and Karnaugh map, logic gates and their static CMOS implementations, arithmetic circuits, code converters, multiplexers, decoders. Sequential circuits: latches and flip-flops, counters, shift-registers, finite state machines, propagation delay, setup and hold time, critical path delay. Data converters: sample and hold circuits, ADCs and DACs.
Semiconductor memories: ROM, SRAM, DRAM. Computer organization: Machine instructions and addressing modes, ALU, data-path and control unit, instruction pipelining.
Section 5: Control Systems
Basic control system components; Feedback principle; Transfer function; Block diagram representation; Signal flow graph; Transient and steady-state analysis of LTI systems; Frequency response; Routh-Hurwitz and Nyquist stability criteria; Bode and root-locus plots; Lag, lead and laglead compensation; State variable model and solution of state equation of LTI systems.
Section 6: Communications Random processes
Autocorrelation and power spectral density, properties of white noise, filtering of random signals through LTI systems. Analog communications: amplitude modulation and demodulation, angle modulation and demodulation, spectra of AM and FM, superheterodyne receivers. Information theory: entropy, mutual information and channel capacity theorem. Digital communications: PCM, DPCM, digital modulation schemes (ASK, PSK, FSK, QAM), bandwidth, inter-symbol interference, MAP, ML detection, matched filter receiver, SNR and BER. Fundamentals of error correction, Hamming codes, CRC.
Section 7: Electromagnetics
Maxwell's equations: differential and integral forms and their interpretation, boundary conditions, wave equation, Poynting vector. Plane waves and properties: reflection and refraction, polarization, phase and group velocity, propagation through various media, skin depth. Transmission lines: equations, characteristic impedance, impedance matching, impedance transformation, S-parameters, Smith chart. Rectangular and circular waveguides, light propagation in optical fibers, dipole and monopole antennas, linear antenna arrays.